# 1. The odd get even

Let G be a subgroup of S_{n}. Show that if G contains an odd permutation, then |G| is even.

## 1.1. Solution

Let x∈G be odd, let H be the set { y ∈ G | y is even }, and let Hx be the coset { yx | x ∈ H }. Then there is a one-to-one correspondence between H and Hx, so |H| = |Hx|. Note that every permutation in Hx is odd. The converse also holds: if z is an odd permutation in G, then zx^{-1} is even and thus in H, and so zx^{-1}x = z is in Hx. It follows that every permutation in G is in exactly one of H and Hx, so |G| = |H| + |Hx| = 2|H| is even.

# 2. Damaging a group

Let G be a group. Consider the algebra G^{*} obtained by replacing the multiplication operation in G with x*y = xy^{-1} and G^{**} obtained by replacing the multiplication operator in G with x**y = x^{-1}y^{-1} (where in each case multiplication and inverses are done using the original operation in G).

Prove or disprove: For any group G, G

^{*}is a semigroup.Prove or disprove: For any group G, G

^{**}is a semigroup.

## 2.1. Solution

Neither is a semigroup, because neither satisfies associativity:

(x*y)*z = (x*y)z

^{-1}= xy^{-1}z^{-1}but x*(y*z) = x*(yz^{-1}) = x(yz^{-1})^{-1}= xzy^{-1}.(x**y)**z = (x**y)

^{-1}z^{-1}= (x^{-1}y^{-1})^{-1}z^{-1}= yxz^{-1}but x**(y**z) = x^{-1}(y**z)^{-1}= x^{-1}(y^{-1}z^{-1})^{-1}= x^{-1}zy.

# 3. Whirling polygons

Show that D_{n} has a subgroup of size m if and only if m divides 2n.

## 3.1. Solution

The only if part is just Lagrange's theorem.

For the if part, first recall that D_{n} is generated by a flip f and a rotation r, with r^{n} = f^{2} = e and fr = r^{-1}f. So in particular the subgroup generated by r is isomorphic to ℤ_{n}. It follows that D_{n} has a subgroup (generated by r^{n/m}) for each m that divides n.

Suppose now that m does not divide n but does divide 2n. Then m = 2k where k∣n (we can only fit one extra 2 in 2n). Consider the subgroup of D_{n} generated by f and r^{n/k}; this has exactly k elements of the form r^{an/k} and k of the form r^{an/k}f, for a total of 2k=m elements.

# 4. Cocosets

Given a group G with subgroups H and K, define HK = { hk | h ∈ H, k ∈ K }. Show that HK is a subgroup of G if and only if HK = KH.

## 4.1. Solution

Let's do the if direction first. Let hk ∈ HK and consider (hk)^{-1} = k^{-1}h^{-1} ∈ KH = HK. Now consider rs ∈ HK; we wish to show hkrs is also in HK. But since kr ∈ KH = HK there exists some uv ∈ HK such that kr = uv. Rewrite hkrs = huvs = (hu)(vs) ∈ HK.

For only if, observe that if HK is a subgroup, then for each x ∈ G we have x ∈ HK if and only if x^{-1} ∈ HK (the only if part is just closure of H under inverses applied to (x^{-1})^{-1} = x). But then HK = { hk | h ∈ H, k ∈ K } = { (hk)^{-1} | h ∈ H, k ∈ K } = { k^{-1}h^{-1} | h ∈ H, k ∈ K } = { kh | k ∈ K, h ∈ H } = KH.

# 5. Rational quotients

Let ℚ be the additive group of the rationals, i.e. the group whose elements are numbers of the form n/m for integers n and m ≠ 0 and whose operation is the usual addition operation for fractions, and let ℤ be the additive group of the integers, which we will treat as equal to the subgroup of the rationals generated by 1 = 1/1. Prove or disprove: ℤ is isomorphic to a subgroup of ℚ/ℤ.

## 5.1. Solution

Let f:ℤ→ℚ/ℤ be a homomorphism. We will show that f is not injective: there exist n and m in ℤ such that f(n) = f(m). Since any isomorphism between ℤ and a subgroup of ℚ/ℤ would give an injective f, this will show that no such isomorphism exists.

Let f(1) = a/b. Then f(b+1) = (b+1) f(1) = (b+1)(a/b) = a/b + a. But a ∈ ℤ, so a/b + a is in the same coset of ℤ as a/b. It follows that f(1) = f(b+1) and f is not injective.

*Comment:* The quotient group ℚ/ℤ is generally known as the *rationals mod 1*, since a natural choice of representatives for the various cosets is the rationals x with 0 ≤ x < 1, and addition yields the remainder after subtracting out any ones. This is similar to the construction of ℤ_{m} ≈ ℤ/mℤ.