**Note:** You are looking at a static copy of the former PineWiki site, used for class notes by James Aspnes from 2003 to 2012. Many mathematical formulas are broken, and there are likely to be other bugs as well. These will most likely not be fixed. You may be able to find more up-to-date versions of some of these notes at http://www.cs.yale.edu/homes/aspnes/#classes.

General category of algorithms that work by altering the input to make the problem easier, either by reducing it to some problem whose solution is already known, or by adding structure to the input (such as by sorting it) that allows the problem to be solved quickly. See LevitinBook Chapter 6 for examples.

CategoryAlgorithmNotes