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# 1. High and mighty

An integer n is high if n >= 1 and, for any m < n, if m is high then n >= 2m.

An integer n is mighty if n >= 1 and n is strictly greater than the sum of all smaller mighty integers.

Show that an integer is high if and only if it is mighty.

## 1.1. Solution

We'll show that the high and mighty integers are both the set { 2x | x in N }.

Lemma

n is high iff it is of the form 2x.

Proof

By induction on n. Observe that 1 = 20 is high, since there is no m < n that is high and thus it is vacuously at least twice all such m. Now consider some n > 1. If n = 2k for some k, by the induction hypothesis the largest high m < n is 2k-1; so we have n = 2k >= 2*2k-1 >= 2m for all high m < n and n is high. If n is not a power of 2, it must lie between 2k and 2k+1 for some k, and by the induction hypothesis 2k is high. But then n < 2*2k and n is not high.

Lemma

n is mighty iff it is of the form 2x.

Proof

Again by induction on n. The base case is n=1; since there no smaller mighty integers, 1 trivially exceeds their sum and is mighty. For larger n, if n=2k then the induction hypothesis gives that the set of smaller mighty integers is 1, 2, 4, ... 2k-1$, and the sum of these integers is 2k-1 by the geometric series formula. Since n > 2k-1, n is mighty. Alternatively, if n is not a power of 2, let 2k be the largest power of 2 less than n. Again we have 1, 2, 4, ..., 2k are all mighty, and their sum is 2k+1^-1 >= n. Thus n is not mighty. We have thus shown than n is high iff n = 2k iff n is mighty. # 2. Injections, surjections, and compositions 1. Prove or disprove: fg is injective if and only if both f and g are injective. 2. Prove or disprove: fg is surjective if and only if both f and g are surjective. ## 2.1. Solution 1. Disproof: We'll construct f and g such that f is not injective but fg is. Let g:{0}->{0,1} be given by g(0) = 0, and let f:{0,1}->{0} be given by f(0) = f(1) = 0. Then f is not injective, but fg:{0}->{0} is the identity function fg(0) = 0, which is injective. 2. Disproof: The same f and g have the property that g is not surjective but fg is. # 3. A big product Just as represents the sum f(a)+f(a+1)+...+f(b), the notation represents the product f(a)*f(a+1)*...*f(b).1 Give a simple formula for the value of as a function of n, and prove that it works for all integers n >= 1. ## 3.1. Solution The formula is Proof is by induction on n. The base case is n = 0, where the LHS and RHS are both 1. For the induction step, observe that # 4. A big sum Give a simple formula for the value of as a function of n, and prove that it works for all integers n >= 1. ## 4.1. Solution Here the tricky part is to observe that 1/(k(k+1)) = 1/k - 1/(k+1). If we sum up many of these pairs of terms, all of them except the 1/1 at the start and the -1/(n+1) at the end cancel out, giving the formula To prove that this does in fact work, use an induction on n. For n = 1 we have For larger n we have latex error! exitcode was 1 (signal 0), transscript follows: This is pdfTeX, Version 3.1415926-2.5-1.40.14 (TeX Live 2013) entering extended mode (./latex_b84f12e2406c9ce8c8848f70f70c7bce065bffc1_p.tex LaTeX2e <2011/06/27> Babel <3.9f> and hyphenation patterns for 78 languages loaded. (/usr/local/texlive/2013/texmf-dist/tex/latex/base/article.cls Document Class: article 2007/10/19 v1.4h Standard LaTeX document class (/usr/local/texlive/2013/texmf-dist/tex/latex/base/size12.clo)) (/usr/local/texlive/2013/texmf-dist/tex/latex/base/inputenc.sty (/usr/local/texlive/2013/texmf-dist/tex/latex/base/utf8.def (/usr/local/texlive/2013/texmf-dist/tex/latex/base/t1enc.dfu) (/usr/local/texlive/2013/texmf-dist/tex/latex/base/ot1enc.dfu) (/usr/local/texlive/2013/texmf-dist/tex/latex/base/omsenc.dfu))) No file latex_b84f12e2406c9ce8c8848f70f70c7bce065bffc1_p.aux. ! LaTeX Error: \begin{eqnarray*} on input line 7 ended by \end{document}. See the LaTeX manual or LaTeX Companion for explanation. Type H <return> for immediate help. ... l.13 \end{document} ! Missing$ inserted.
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# 5. A recurrence

Let T(n) = T(n/3) + n and let T(1) = 1. Give a simple formula for T(3k) as a function of k, and prove that it works for all integers k >= 0.

## 5.1. Solution

Start by looking at the first few values of T(3k). We have T(30) = T(1) = 1, T(31) = 1 + 3, T(32) = 1 + 3 + 9, etc. The pattern here seems to be that

To verify this pattern, observe that it works for k = 0, since (30+1-1)/2 = (3-1)/2 = 1; and for larger k, we have T(3k) = T(3k/3) + 3k = T(3k-1) + 3k = (3k-1)/2 + 3k = (3k-1 + 2*3k) / 2 = (3*3k-1) / 2 = (3k+1-1)/2 and the induction goes through.

1. Or 1 if b < a; see SummationNotation. (1)

2014-06-17 11:57